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SSR, 6 (1963) 77-90. October 2003. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Queneau, Phoenix, Arizona, 1988. (B) is related to arsenic. Alkaline Sulfide Leach Testing Conditions. 3 5 ClOK , 3 5 OHI , 4 7 OHCI , 5 3KBrO Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero e.g. Anderson and L.G. Queneau (San Diego, CA: AIME-TMS, 1992), 349-366. This oxidation process has been practiced in industry (19). e.g. 5,290,338, March 1, 1994. 3. Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to sodium arsenite. This can be viewed as follows: Na2SX + (X-1)Na3AsS3 (X-1)Na3AsS4 + Na2S (7). The further treatment of the leach solutions is described elsewhere. Reddy, J.L. Anderson, C. G. and Krys, L. E., "Leaching of Antimony from a Refractory Precious Metals Concentrate", Proceedings Of The Fourth International Symposium On Hydrometallurgy (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). These conditions and results are reflective of closed cycle testing of the system that includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery. Ogneuporov.. 3 (1961), 359. No. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. In the past, pyrometallurgical roasting has been utilized to remove antimony, arsenic and mercury from the concentrates and ores. No. Anderson, "Industrial Nitrogen Species Catalyzed Pressure Leaching and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Recovery from Refractory Gold Concentrates", Precious Metals 2001, 25th Annual IPMI Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, June 2001. Nadkarni, R.M., and Kusik, C.L., "Hydrometallurgical Removal of Arsenic from Copper Concentrates" Arsenic Metallurgy Fundamentals and Applications, Edited by R.G. Anderson, "The Chemical Analysis of Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Processes", The Society of Mineral Analysts and the Canadian Mineral Analysts Annual Meeting, Spokane, Washington, April 2002. This has resulted in long term existing environmental impacts in the region. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment follows. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Metallurgical Society of AIME and the CIMM, TMS-AIME Fall Extractive Meeting, San Diego CA, Nov. 10-13 1985, p. 197-219. Drake and J.W. R. M. Nadkarni, C. L. Kusik and H. P. Heissner, "Method of removing arsenic and antimony from Copper Ore Concentrate", U. S. Patent 3, 911,073, Oct. 7, 1975. Nauch Tr. Qboaashch. Figure 3. 2. 2.1 Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Speiss The formation of speiss in lead smelters is a common occurrence and poses process problems in that significant levels of precious metals are accumulated in the resultant arsenides and antimonides. In addition, initial efforts are underway and have been successful in regenerating the necessary H2SO4 and NaOH reagents from the Na2SO4 by-product. C.G. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Roznava Concentrate = 100 g/L Leach Temperature = 105O C, Sulfur Addition = 20 g/L Sodium Hydroxide = 35 g/L Sb Leached = 95.0 % As Leached = 60.0 % Hg Leached =95.0 % Au Leached = 20.0 % Cu Leached = 0.0 % Ag Leached = 0.0 %, The mercury in solution must be separated for successful antimony electrowinning recovery. 1. Leach Time = 6 Hr. Both. Naub. They also offer a number of advantages for crystal growth, and provide a medium for the synthesis of solids 150 G.W. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. Worldwide, it is employed industrially in the CIS, China and the United States for the production of antimony. Nordwick, S. M. and Anderson, C. G., "Advances In Antimony Electrowinning at the Sunshine Mine", Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy, (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). This is a unique hydrometallurgical system as it is a very selective lixiviant for the distinct leaching of tin, gold, antimony, arsenic and mercury (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Corby Anderson - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Arsenic and Antimony Leaching The rest of this paper deals with the specific leaching application of the alkaline sulfide system to arsenic, antimony, and mercury bearing materials. Reddy, W. P. Imrie, P.B. This process is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. If the group number of an element in modern periodic table is n, then its oxidation number may vary from (n â 10) to (n â 18) (but it is mainly applicable for p-block elements ) e.g. Selective cementation of mercury from solution is one methodology and it can be accomplished by several means utilizing copper, antimony, iron and sulfur. Gold lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides as shown in equation 8. But if halogen atom is attached with a more electronegative atom than halogen atom, then it will show positive oxidation numbers. The details of this process will be given in future publications and may be illustrated as follows: Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2.3 H2SO4 + 2NaOH (15), Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Copper Dross Flue Dust The formation of arsenic and antimony laden dusts in the processing of lead is commonly encountered. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. Ahad. This also oxidizes the arsenic to soluble sodium arsenate which can then be precipitated by conventional means using iron compounds. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Total Sulfur Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 25 g/L Table III. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery. The primary issues of interest to be addressed in this paper were solublization of antimony and mercury, purification of the leach liquors, the deportment of the mercury and the recovery of gold from solution. % of Metal Leached Cu, % As, % Sb, % Au, % 0.0 99.2 99.7 14.3. 15. Summary From the cited examples in the paper, which utilized fundamental principles of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy as well as its industrially proven applications for the selective arsenic, antimony, and mercury removal, it is obvious that ores, concentrates and materials containing these can be effectively treated while also achieving selective gold recovery where required. J. Kaloc, et al., "Alkaline leaching of tetrahedrite concentrates", Hutn. This can be done in several ways. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. When did Elizabeth Berkley get a gap between her front teeth? All of the M2+ions are smaller and considerably less polarizable than the isoelectronic M+ ions. The oxidation state is +1 for the alkali metals and +2 for the alkaline earth metals. When did organ music become associated with baseball? P. U. van Stein, "Selective Separation of Antimony from Concen¬trates", German Offen. Mauk Kaz. 19. 12. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? But most of S is non-oxidized and remains its primitive phase This is verified by XRD analysis, as shown in stead of at high ones as follows: 3FeAsS+ 9NaOH+ 402= Na3AsS3+ 2Na3As04+ 3Fe( OH) 4FeAsS+ 4FeS2+ 12NaOH+ 302+ 6H20= 4Na3AsS3+ OH) 3 As such, there are minimal environmental or toxicological issues in the use of alkaline sulfide gold recovery as the waste products become value added, marketable by-products. Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Copper Enargite Concentrates In many parts of the world, enargite, Cu3AsS4, occurs as a primary copper mineral. Table X. 5. 17. M. Jeffrey, and C.G. Figure 2: Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. Leach Time = 6 Hr. Modrow and G.K. Roset, "Adaption of Dilute Mold Lime Dual Alkali Scrubbing at Stillwater Mining Company's PGM Smelter", Hydrometallurgy 2003, Vancouver, B.C. sodium polysulfide (Na2SX) and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) are created along with sulfide. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing impurities. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ? For example mercury will be precipitated in conjunction with by-product sodium hydroxyantimonate production by pressure oxidation as follows; 2Na2HgS2 + H2O + O2 2HgS + Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH NaSb(OH)6 + 2Na2S2O3 (17) (18). Again arsenic has The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table IV, and the assay of the final products is shown in Table V. The overall results are presented in Table VI. Table XVI. Leach Testing Conditions. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 1 Hr. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table XVIII, and the assays of the final products are shown in Table XIV. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Antimony and Mercury Leaching As a further example of the flexability of the alkaline sulfide leaching technology the following summary of the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) is presented below. As well, the conventional method of direct collection of gold by activated carbon does not work in these solutions as it does for gold cyanide solutions. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Is it normal to have the medicine come out your nose after a tonsillectomy? The leaching of the concentrate was straightforward. Na3AsS4 + 2 O2 2 O2 + Na2S 3.5 O2 + 2NaOH + Na2S2 8 O2 + 8NaOH + Na2S5 Na3AsO4 Na2SO4 2Na2SO4 + H2O 5Na2SO4 + 4H2O (9) (10) (11) (12), This versatile and environmentally benign chemical may then be sold to and utilized in industries such as pulp and paper, glass, ceramics, detergents, textile dyes, mineral feed supplements, bleach and photography. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. The gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Several other applications of the alkaline sulphide leach treatment can be obtained by contacted one of the authors. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment of this arsenic trioxide bearing materials follows: Table VII. NaAsO 2 : Molar mass: 129.91 g/mol Appearance white or grayish powder hygroscopic Density: 1.87 g/cm 3: Melting point: 550 °C (1,022 °F; 823 K) decomposes C.G. 2,020,656 (25 Feb. 1971). A typical flotation concentrate of this type is shown in Table XVI. C.G. The equations that describe the antimony and mercury dissolution are similar to the equations presented above for arsenic and therefore they won't be presented here. Figure 1 illustrates the equilibrium diagram for sulfur while Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. A proprietary gold recovery process has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions containing a mixture of metals such as arsenic, tin, mercury and antimony. There is an increase in coordination number going from Li+(4) through Na+(6) to K+, Rb+ and Cs+(8), and from Be2+(4) through Mg2+(6) to Ca2â, Sfi+ and Ba2+(8). (c) Aluminium always has +3 oxidation number Note : Metal may have negative or zero oxidation number Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero 0 0 0 0 e.g. 7. 6. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table IX. Twidwell Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, Montana USA Abstract Throughout the world, there are many orebodies or materials which have significant value but also contain arsenic, antimony, and mercury. meta-arsenite whose name is also shortened to sodium arsenite. 9. Please use this link to notify us: Report this file as copyright or inappropriate, Notice: fwrite(): send of 201 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531. This paper outlines the fundamentals of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy and its successful application to arsenic, antimony and mercury bearing ores, concentrates, by-products, and other materials. Also the waste alkaline sulfide solutions can be recycled for further gold leaching or further processed with low temperature oxidation to sodium sulfate, Na2SO4. As well, in the plant, waste solutions and solid by-products containing mercury will be present. Due to the selective oxidation of As and S in the IAL process, the As is almost oxidized completely. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached In, % 0.0 Pb,% 0.0 Sb,% 95.0 Page 126 As,% 99.0 Zn,% 0.0, Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Softening Skims, The formation of arsenic and antimony skims in lead refining is commonly encountered. References, 1. Copper Enargite Concentrate Head Sample Assay Cu, % 30.1 As, % Sb, % Au, g/T 10.7 1.2 35.1, Table XIV. The proven techniques and accompanying industrial flowsheets used to recover and stabilize arsenic with, for example, iron from the solutions is beyond the scope of this paper. (B) Formation of water by action of sodium hydroxide and nitric acid. The fact that Na3AsS3 can be converted into Na3AsS4 in an aqueous suspension of sulfur indicates that sulfur (A) is electropositive. Kolis/Coord. Ser. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hendrix and P.B. This more accurately reflects plant conditions. Chem. The mercury bearing solid sodium hydroxyantimonate is then relieved of its mercury content via selective lixiviation. 62. 4. 8. Cationic Low Oxidation State Phosphorus and Arsenic Compounds Destabilized LiBH4âNaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts Structurally distinct bacterial luciferases Further, a novel gold recovery method has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover leached gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions. Equilibrium Species Eh-pH Diagram for Sulfur and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Currently, studies are underway on the actual kinetics and mechanism of the alkaline sulfide system(16,17,18). contains a polymeric meta-arsenite ion (AsO2-)n . C.G. As shown in Figure 3, gold is soluble in the alkaline sulfide system. (1,2,3,4) When the system is applied to orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. 145 (3) (1944), 54-8. 2 G. F. Gnatyshenko and T. R. Polyvyanni, "Arsenic leaching from Cottrell dusts by sodium sulfide", lav. All Rights Reserved. Rev. Kaz. Table IV. Lead Softening Skims Head Sample Assay Pb,% 52.9 Sb,% As,% 31.7 3.3, Table XI. Where can i find the fuse relay layout for a 1990 vw vanagon or any vw vanagon for the matter? 16. Jlnst. 20. 2.2 Selective Recovery of Gold from Alkaline Sulfide Solutions In the example cited above, it is essential in that any gold leached in the alkaline sulfide solutions be recovered. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Assay. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached, Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au %, Ag, % 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 99.1 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0, As seen, the alkaline sulfide leach was highly selective in removing only antimony, arsenic and some gold to solution. As regulations on the transport, exposure, disposition and emission of these elements have become more stringent; it has become increasingly more difficult to derive the values from the resources. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. The combination of sodium hydroxide and 2 elemental sulfur results in the formation of species other than just sulfide (S- ). lnst._Redk. 2Au + S22- + 2S22AuS- +2S2(8). Volume, L 0.5 Au 1.5 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T, Table XV. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Final Assay. 3. SSR. Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.84 g/L, Table XIV. 20. Roznava Tetrahedrite Concentrate. May 13, 2018 | Author: achmadroybiabbas | Category: Solvation, Hydrogen, Ion, Nitrogen, Solubility Table XVIII. oxidation number of +3. 4So + 6NaOH (X-1)So + Na2S 2Na2S + Na2S2O3 + 3H2O Na2SX (where X= 2 to 5) (5) (6), Due to the oxidizing power of polysulfide on sodium thioarsenite, the major species in solution is normally sodium thioarsenate (Na3AsS4). We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur, The generation of these predominant meta-stable species is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. 18. This may be illustrated as; Na2HgS2 + Fe Hg + Na2S + FeS (16), For the actual proposed plant an alternative patented technology was actually chosen for solution purification . The superheated fluids have a number of unusual properties which render them different from the normal liquid phase. Akad. Figure 1. The mercury is then recovered as a waste product, stabilized and stored while the cleaned sodium antimonate is either recycled into the plant or marketed. Figure 2. This is illustrated as follows: Table XIII. Sb, %, As, % Hg, %, Cu, %, Fe, % Ag, ppm Au, ppm TS, % 17.3 1.85 0.55 26.1 12.4 6,400 2.0 22.0 Utilizing alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy, as practiced industrially, extensive studies were undertaken in the United States to produce and treat Roznava concentrates. Fundamental Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy Hydrometallurgical methods can be employed for treatment of gold, arsenic, antimony, tin and mercury containing materials, concentrates and ores as well as complex ones containing any number of metals. This is as follows: 2Na2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2NaOH (14), The clean gypsum product can then be marketed and used in such applications as agricultural soil amendments or as an additive in primary cement manufacture. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2), When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. al., "Antimony Separation Process", U.S. Patent No. 2,331,375 (12 Oct. 1944). Anderson, C. G., et. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy C G Anderson and L G Twidwell, THE ALKALINE SULFIDE HYDROMETALLURGICAL SEPARATION, RECOVERY AND FIXATION OF TIN, ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, MERCURY AND GOLD. The gold in solution was recovered with the technology portrayed earlier in the paper and the arsenic was precipitated and stabilized with iron after oxidation of the alkaline waste solutions. Table XVII. Leach Time = 12 Hr. Leach Testing Conditions. The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4) Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to W. C. Holmes, "Electrolytic recovery of antimony from Letrahedrite concentrates", U. S. Patent. H. Glazkov and A. L. Tseft, "Solubility of Sulfide Minerals of antimony and arsenic in metal salts at elevated pressure", Sb. Our content is added by our users. Gos. Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, 4. The atomic mass of an element is 32.07 u and its atomic number is 16. W. C. Holmes, "How electrolytic antimony is made at Sunshine Plant", Ens. In this case, a high grade, 38% copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment by smelting. Anderson. Which reaction involves neither oxidation nor reduction? Gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Lead Smelter Speiss Head Sample Assay Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au g/T, Ag, g/T 43.5 1.4 0.5 0.1 12.2 3.3 14.8 1.7 0.9 45.0 9000 Table II. sodium arsenite. Met. (E) is changing its oxidation state in the same manner as â¦ (C) can be an oxidizing agent. Table I. As well the sodium sulfate produced can be used to regenerate the sodium hydroxide needed in the process in a manner analogous to industrial dual alkali scrubbing systems(20). Met^l, 9 (1961), 2Q4-B. Mining J. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached Pb,% 0.0 2.5 Sb,% 89.0 As,% 96.0. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing these impurities. Home; chemistry of main elements.pdf; chemistry of main elements.pdf. Anderson, "A Fundamental Study of the Alkaline Sulfide Leaching of Gold", The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, October 2002. Alkaline sulfide leaching (ASL) at approximately 100 ºC has been used to selectively extract arsenic and antimony from enargite and tetrahedrite concentrates. R.G. Equilibrium Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. Sodium thio-arsenate has been postulated to crystallize from alkaline sulfide leaching solutions upon cooling. As an example, when the system is applied to an arsenic containing material like orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. O , S , P , O 2 8 4 3 Sum of the oxidation numbers of atoms of all elements in a molecule is zero. The conditions utilized are shown in Table XVII. Leach Test Results. 11. Listy. Nauch-Issled. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Alkaline Sulfide Leach Head Solution Assay Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 mg/L Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 mg/L Sn 1.84 g/L, Table V. Alkaline Sulfide Solution Final Assay Volume, L 0.5 Au 14.4 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T Table VI. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table XII. Also, due to space constraints, only the leach results for a series of lead smelter products will be shown in this paper. (D)has eight valence electrons. 14. C. R. Edwards, 1985 "Engineering the Equity Concentrate Leach Process", In: Complex Sulfides: Processing of Ores, Concentrates and By-Products, A.D Zunkel, et al, eds. The alkaline sulfide system is one of these and is essentially a mixture of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Met- Oboeashck. 10. Anderson, C. G., Nordwick, S. M., and Krys, L.E., "Processing of Antimony at the Sunshine Mine", Residues and Effluents - Processing and Environmental Considerations, ed. Irkutsk. 13. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, The proprietary substrate solids which have been employed to load the gold consist of several cheap and readily available materials and direct processing of the material is probably the cheapest and most effective method of refining the gold. The resultant sodium sulfate, after arsenic removal, is further treated by purification and crystallization to produce high grade, marketable sodium sulfate. As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Dissolution of elemental sulfur in sodium hydroxide is also used as a lixiviant for alkaline sulfide leaching of arsenic. C.G., "The Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Mercury Bearing Antimony Ores and Concentrates", TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, Ca., February, 2003. This Copper Dross Flue Dust Head Sample Assay In, % 0.3 Pb,% 46.0 Sb,% As,% Zn,% 9.0 12.0 11.0, Table VIII. Anderson, E. Dahlgren, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004.
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