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european polecat diet

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european polecat diet

Instead of creating ned burrows, capturing other’s burrows is easier. Google Scholar, Petrovan SO, Schmidt BR (2016) Volunteer conservation action data reveals large-scale and long-term negative population trends of a widespread amphibian, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Amphibians were the second most frequently identified prey group (10% FO) and mostly comprised frogs. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The polecat’s working gait is just not as advanced and twisting as that of the mink or stoat, and it isn’t as quick because of the mountain weasel. J Biogeogr 38:137–147. Mammal Rev 49:171–188, Santos MJ, Matos HM, Baltazar C, Grilo C, Santos-Reis M (2009) Is polecat (Mustela putorius) diet affected by “mediterraneity”? Polecat Behaviour. Its domesticated form, the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), has been used for many years to hunt rabbits and, more recently, as an experimental animal in dental research as a replacement for the cat. It is possibly derived from the French poule, meaning "chicken", likely in reference to the species' fondness for poultry, or it may be a variant of the Old English ful, meaning "foul". Polecats have a thick, silky and attractive brown fur with a pale yellow underbody. They stalk their prey and when they seize it they kill it with a swift bite to the neck. Our expert guide by the Vincent Wildlife Trust takes a look at this marvellous mustelid. Biometrics 33:159–174, CAS  KS was supported by a PhD studentship funded by Vincent Wildlife Trust and the College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter. Lagomorphs were the most abundant prey (66% frequency of occurrence, 95% confidence interval 53–74%), followed by other mammals (12%, 4–18%), amphibians (10%, 3–16%) and birds (7%, 1–13%). These animals are expert at chasing and killing its primary prey of hares, rabbits and rodents. PubMed Google Scholar. Analysis of changes in polecat diets over time indicated that the occurrence of all mammals more than doubled between the 1960s (35%) and the 1980s (74%), after which the occurrence of mammals stabilised as a proportion of diet (Table 3). With its 14 years of lifespan in captivity, the scientific name of the European polecat is Mustela putorius. Instead, we found an increase in the frequency of occurrence of mammals in polecat diet since the 1960s and an increase in lagomorphs between the 1980s and 1990s, which is consistent with similar variation in the importance of lagomorphs in the diet of stoats over the same time period (McDonald et al. In large river floodlands, water vole are common prey. The diet of a European Polecat mainly consists of rabbits, small rodents, eggs, birds, amphibians and carrion. For example, polecats specialise on rabbits in the Mediterranean (Santos et al. 2019), but whether or not polecat abundance or the rate of population expansion have been affected by SGARs exposure is unknown (Sainsbury et al. J Zool 148:201–217, Day MG (1968) Food habits of British stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (Mustela nivalis). Backwards stepwise model selection using the “drop1” function in R (with P = 0.05 used as the significance level to assess whether or not variables should be retained) was carried out to find the most parsimonious model. hey has small eyes with darkish brown irises, and have a comparatively sharp look. The shape of the marbled polecat’s face is very similar to its cousin, the European polecat, but obviously its weird and wonderful markings are unique and it has long claws, which the European polecat doesn’t. The ears of the European polecat are darkish brown and edged with white. Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will maximise their net energy intake (MacArthur and Pianka 1966; Pyke et al. The calmly colored underfur isn’t equally seen on completely different components of the body. Springer, Berlin, Jędrzejewski W, Jędrzejewska B, Brzezinski M (1993) Winter habitat selection and feeding habits of polecats (Mustela putorius) in the Bialowieza National Park, Poland. Amphibian frequency was significantly lower in all other decades compared with the 1960s, but there was no significant difference in amphibians between any other decades (Table 4). Worldwide Range: Widespread in Western Europe from the Atlantic coast to the Urals and from southern Scandinavia southwards to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. As backwards stepwise deletion (with P = 0.05 as the significance level used to assess whether or not variables should be retained in models) found that sex was not significant in any of the models, it was excluded from the analysis and only the results for the prey groups lagomorphs and other mammals are reported (as the models that included the 1960s datasets already include the other main prey groups). Z Säugetierkd 54:377–392, Zhou YB, Newman C, Xu WT, Buesching CD, Zalewski A, Kaneko Y, Macdonald DW, Xie ZQ (2011) Biogeographical variation in the diet of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae): adaptive foraging in generalists. Between-sex dietary differences have been observed in some mustelids (McDonald 2002). White circles indicate stomachs that were empty. How people can help 2018). Mice, voles, rats, lemmings and similar animals are all on the dinner menu, and the shape of the polecat gives it the ability to chase prey into their burrows. On the flanks, although, the lighting is properly outlined, and contrasts sharply with the overall tone of the backside of the body. J Mammal 23:250–255, Amundsen PA (1995) Feeding strategy of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): general opportunist, but individual specialist. Vincent Wildlife Trust, London, Blandford PRS (1986) Behavioural ecology of the polecat Mustela putorius in Wales. It is unknown whether polecats in Britain may have altered their feeding strategy in response to recent rabbit declines and whether these declines may have impacted on their continued recolonisation. At the age of 6-7 days, the kits are coated in silky, white fur, which is changed with a cinnamon brown-greyish woolly coat at the age of three-four weeks. Birds, fishes and invertebrates comprised approximately 7%, 4% and 1% FO of all items, respectively. In winter polecats are much less energetic, rising through the day extra typically than in the summer season. Rodents and amphibians are common food items in all regions (Lodé 1997). Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust, Fordingbridge, Aldous ST, Manweiler J (1942) The winter food habits of the short-tailed weasel in Northern Minnesota. Polecats spend time on game estates in Britain (Packer and Birks 1999), and in other countries, polecats are known to consume wounded or dead gamebirds (Rysava-Novakova and Koubek 2009). ACK is grateful to the Negaunee Foundation for its continuing generous support of a preparator at National Museums Scotland. Field studies council occasional publication number 123. Rodents are the dominant group and constituted about half of the common diet. Mammal Rev 41:294–312, Landis JR, Koch GG (1977) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Amazing Facts About the Polecat. With its 14 years of lifespan in captivity, the scientific name of the European polecat is. To compare changes in frequency of occurrence of prey groups over time, binomial logistic regressions were run for the prey groups: all mammals, birds and amphibians for the 1960s–2010s datasets using decade as an explanatory variable. 2019), lagomorphs comprised a lower proportion of polecat diet than in the 2010s and niche breadth was correspondingly greater than in the 1990s or 2010s (Table 3; Blandford 1986). 2018), possibly as the result of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), which has devastated rabbit populations across mainland Europe (Lees and Bell 2008). At delivery, the kits weigh 9-10 g and measure 55–70 mm in body size; they’re blind, naked, and deaf. Polecat diet relates to two potential risks to recovery. WILDGuides, UK, Jędrzejewska B, Jędrzejewski W (1998) Predation in vertebrate communities: the Bialowieza Primeval Forest as a case study. Eur J Wildl Res 65:64, Aebischer NJ, Davey PD, Kingdon NG (2011) National Gamebag Census: mammal trends to 2009. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. Robbie A. McDonald. The Marbled polecat is a small mammal that is found in Europe and Asia. In large river floodlands, water vole are common prey. Through the mating season, the male grabs the feminine by the neck and drags her about to stimulate ovulation, then copulates for as much as an hour. Analysis of changes in rabbit records between 2011 and 2015 reveals spatial variation in rabbit declines, with the greatest reductions in central and southern England, along the Scottish borders and in north-east Scotland (Massimino et al. Domesticated Arctic Fox – Can There Be a Pet Fox? Every polecat makes use of a number of den sites distributed all through its territory. The FO of lagomorphs was lowest in the autumn (Table 2) and significantly greater in spring (coefficient estimate 2.19, standard error 0.69, z = 3.18, P = 0.001) and summer (coefficient = 0.60, SE = 0.70, z = 0.85, P = 0.396) than in the autumn, but FO in winter (coefficient = 2.19, SE = 0.69, z = 3.18, P = 0.001) was not statistically significantly greater than in the autumn. European polecat is nocturnal animal (active during the night). 2001; Lee and Gelembiuk 2008). Weaning begins at three weeks of age, whereas the everlasting dentition erupts after 7–8 weeks. It may be that this increase has been a result of an increase in the proportion of rodents in polecat diet. Diet ~ Frogs, water voles, trout, eels, rabbits, snakes and ground nesting birds. Its most frequent prey item in the former Soviet Union is the common vole and rarely the red-backed vole. The winter fur of the European polecat is brownish-black or blackish brown, the depth of which is decided by the color of the lengthy guard hairs. Peterborough, Inns H (2011) Britain’s reptiles and amphibians: a guide to the reptiles and amphibians of Great Britain, Ireland and the Channel Islands. Lagomorph occurrence increased significantly between the 1980s (25%) and 1990s (69%) but did not differ between samples collected in the 1990s and the 2010s (66%; Tables 3 and 4). Whilst some dietary studies have correlated amphibian consumption to periods of abundance (Lodé 2000), others have found that polecats eat them preferentially (Weber 1989b). 2019), which are a major source of food for polecats in Great Britain (Birks and Kitchener 1999). However, the importance of bird remains is often underestimated in analysing stomach contents (Reynolds and Aebischer 1991). Rodents are thought to be the major route by which polecats are exposed to second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) in Britain (Shore et al. PubMed  European polecats are often silent animals, although they growl fiercely when indignant, and squeak when distressed. Food will travel through the body in 3-5 hours so they will need to eat about 10x a day. Birds decreased significantly as a proportion of diet between the 1980s and 1990s and the 1980s and 2010s, but was similar in the 2010s compared with the 1990s (Table 4). We analysed stomach contents from 99 polecats collected in 2012–2016 and compared results with earlier studies. For the male and female calculations by decade between the 1980s and 2010s (the original 1960s data did not distinguish between the sexes), Levins’ niche breadth was calculated based on six categories (lagomorphs, other mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes and invertebrates) as data from the 1960s did make this distinction. The European polecat's diet consists of mouse-like rodents, followed by amphibians and birds. In other localities, it has been found that impressions of specialisation by polecats simply reflect the local abundance of a given prey (Lodé 1995). Seasons are spring: March–May (n items identified = 24), summer: June–August (n = 20), autumn: September–November (n = 24) and winter: December–February (n = 13). In this example, polecats exhibited a very narrow dietary niche and clear preferential selection for frogs. The foremost meals of polecat are discovered mammals. Second, polecats are secondarily exposed to anticoagulant rodenticides by eating contaminated rodents, and the frequency of polecat exposure to rodenticides is increasing. 2004). Percentage frequency of occurrence of five categories of prey identified in polecat stomachs from animals collected between 2012 and 2016, presented by season and as a percentage of prey items collected. The level of overlap in identification indicated that identification of guard hair was sufficiently robust for inclusion in our data analysis. Plant debris was considered to have been ingested when catching prey (Walton 1968) and was not included in diet composition quantification. The relatively high occurrence of amphibians is in line with polecat diet studies in Switzerland (Weber 1989a), Poland (Jędrzejewski et al. J Zool 252:363–371, Packer JJ, Birks JD (1999) An assessment of British farmers’ and gamekeepers’ experiences, attitudes and practices in relation to the European polecat Mustela putorius. There was also some evidence of differences in resource use between males and females in the 1980s (lower lagomorph consumption by females) when rabbits were limited in availability (Table 3; Blandford 1986); this resource partitioning was not evident in the 2010s. Insectivores are a minor part of the whereas birds are the secondary prey group, dominated by medium-sized species. Nord J Freshw Res 71:150–156, Baghli A, Engel E, Verhagen R (2002) Feeding habits and trophic niche overlap of two sympatric Mustelidae, the polecat Mustela putorius and the beech marten Martes foina. European Polecat – Ferret | Facts | Diet | Habitat. The European polecat's diet consists of mouse-like rodents, followed by amphibians and birds. 2011). It is a testament to the polecat's ferocity that it can and will take down a rabbit that is much larger than itself. Shaded circles indicate polecats with items in their stomach. In the 1980s, Blandford (1986) found that Galliformes comprised 5% FO of polecat diet. Secondary exposure to SGARs may be lethal in sufficient concentration, or lead to a range of sub-lethal effects (Van den Brink et al. We thank all polecat carcass contributors, M. Bruce and M. Chappell for processing stomach contents and initial analysis and L. Walker and E. Potter for managing carcass collection as part of the Predatory Birds Monitoring Scheme. The European polecat is the only ancestor of the ferret, which was domesticated more than 2000 years ago for the aim of looking vermin. The common ferret is also slightly smaller than the polecat, averaging 51 cm (20 inches) in… The frequency of occurrence matrix was replicated randomly 1000 times (bootstrapped with replacement 1000 times) to generate 95% confidence intervals following Reynolds and Aebischer (1991). When rabbit numbers were still low in Wales in the 1980s (Aebischer et al. The European polecat Mustela putorius is a medium-sized mustelid carnivoran that is currently recolonising its former range in Great Britain, following catastrophic declines, mostly in the nineteenth century (Langley and Yalden 1977; Sainsbury et al. Males usually have bigger territories than females. Should food become scarce, polecats also eat insects and fruit, though they are much less able to handle the digestion of these foods than either canids or ursids. Z Säugetierkd 58:75–83, Klare U, Kamler JF, Macdonald DW (2011) A comparison and critique of different scat-analysis methods for determining carnivore diet. All loose hairs were collected and analysed. 2011; Harris et al. Every litter sometimes consists of 5 to 10 kits. This means that the difference between frequency of occurrence calculated using total prey items or that using the number of stomachs is negligible (in this study, of the 99 polecat stomachs investigated and 79 that had identifiable contents, only three individual stomachs contained more than one item). 1977; Perry and Pianka 1997), which may be maximised via different foraging strategies. 2011). 2011) and polecats were predominantly found only in that country (Sainsbury et al. In addition, binomial logistic regressions were run for the prey groups: all mammals, lagomorphs, other mammals, birds and amphibians using the 1980s, 1990s, and 2010s datasets with decade and sex as explanatory variables. Required fields are marked *. Diet The European polecat’s diet mainly consists of small rodents, rabbits, eggs, amphibians and birds. Polecats are solitary in nature, nocturnal and active throughout the year. Fur remains were identified using guard hair cuticle patterns after Teerink (1991). Of the 99 stomachs that contained some remains (65 male, 32 female, 2 sex unknown), 14 contained only liquid and six contained unidentifiable remains, such as undigested flesh. Areas around the eyes are black-brown, with a longitudinal stripe of comparable color alongside the highest of the nostril. One individual not shown in the graph but included in the main analyses did not have the date recorded. Secondary exposure of polecats to SGARs increased 1.7-fold between 1993 and 2016, and the most recent study indicated that 79% of polecats had been exposed (Sainsbury et al. They prey upon frogs and rodents in the wild. The common ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is a domesticated form of the European polecat, which it resembles in size and habits and with which it interbreeds.The common ferret differs in having yellowish white (sometimes brown) fur and pinkish red eyes. Dietary niche breadth was greater in the 1960s, when rabbits were scarce, than in other decades, but did not differ between the 1990s and 2010s, indicating that diets have not diversified with recent rabbit declines. The % FO of all prey items in male and female polecat stomachs was similar across the board, and there was no difference in niche breadth between male (Levins’ index = 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.0) and female polecats (2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2). 2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-020-00484-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-020-00484-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Models were not run for the prey groups fish and invertebrates due to small sample sizes. The hind toes are quite long and partially webbed, with weakly curved around 4 mm-long, nonretractable claws. Springer international publishing AG, Cham, Walton KC (1968) Studies on the biology of the polecat, Putorius Putorius (L). Mammal Research Biol Conserv 85:233–240, Birks JDS, Kitchener AC (1999) The distribution and status of the polecat Mustela putorius in Britain in the late 1990s. Am Nat 100:603–609, Malecha AW, Antczak M (2013) Diet of the European polecat Mustela putorius in an agricultural area in Poland. BTO research report number 706. 2011; Aebischer 2019), but since then, rabbit numbers have declined across Britain (England − 44%; Scotland − 82%; and Wales − 48%; Harris et al. Rodents did not increase in diet between the 1990s and 2010s and still occur with < 10% frequency, indicating that rodents need not contribute much to diet to expose polecats to rodenticides. Bird remains were identified to order using Day (1966). PubMed Central  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Thomas L (2008) Guide to British owls and owl pellets. They may defend their territory fiercely, except a feminine has younger, or is in season. The traits of polecat residence ranges differ in response to season, habitat, breeding, and social standing. In Spain, generalist carnivorans (such as red fox Vulpes vulpes, badger Meles meles and genet Genetta genetta) reduced their consumption of rabbits in response to declines in rabbit populations following RHD outbreaks (Ferreras et al. European polecat diet. Princeton University Press, Princeton, Lodé T (1994) Environmental factors influencing habitat exploitation by the polecat Mustela putorius in western France. Environ Pollut 122:183–193, Sidorovich VE, Pikulik MM (1997) Toads Bufo spp. The limbs are short and claws are long and strong. In this article, I am going to give an overview of European Polecat facts, profile, bred for hunting rabbit, lifespan, bred, diet, size, and habitat, etc. Map showing the collection locations of polecat carcasses collected between 2012 and 2016. Mammal Rev 29:75–92, Perry G, Pianka ER (1997) Animal foraging: past, present and future. Abstract. Your email address will not be published. The underfur is nearly lined by the darkish guard hairs on the back and hindquarters. In spring and winter, amphibians (especially grass frogs and green toads) become important food items. First, 10% of samples were randomly selected for a second blind analysis by the same analyst; the correspondence in the results was 100%. Seasons also have an impact on the fur and color. They live on a diversified meal. PubMed  Most rabbits are killed underground in their burrows, where polecats prefer to rest during daylight. Vincent Wildlife Trust, Ledbury, Day MG (1966) Identification of hair and feather remains in the gut and faeces of stoats and weasels. The weight of the matured male is 1 – 1.5 kg whereas the female is 650 – 820 g. The European polecat has a way more settled lifestyle, with particular residence ranges. - Diets of European polecat Mustela putorius in Great Britain during fifty years of population recovery. Although they are present across Wales, much of England and parts of Scotland, polecats are elusive and rarely seen. Folia Zool 62:48–54, Massimino D, Harris SJ, Gillings S (2018) Evaluating spatiotemporal trends in terrestrial mammal abundance using data collected during bird surveys. Lodé 1994; McDonald et al. Sometimes, deserted European badger or purple fox burrows are used as the habitat. We have highlighted long-term increases in the proportion of lagomorphs in polecat diet in Britain during a period of polecat population recovery. Data on nationwide trends in amphibians in Britain are limited, but available evidence that common toad Bufo bufo have been declining over the last 40 years (Petrovan and Schmidt 2016). They will slowly stalk their prey, seizing it and killing it with a swift bite to the neck. Polecat niche breadth has declined as rabbit populations have recovered. Folia Zool 58:66–75, Sainsbury KA, Shore RF, Schofield H, Croose E, Pereira MG, Sleep D, Kitchener AC, Hantke G, McDonald RA (2018) Long-term increase in secondary exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in European polecats Mustela putorius in Great Britain. There is also evidence of seasonal consumption of rodents (including brown rats Rattus norvegicus and field voles Microtus agrestis) particularly in the winter months (Birks 1998; Birks and Kitchener 1999). Successfully colonizing species often demonstrate ecological flexibility during the process of population establishment and expansion (Rosecchi et al. To explore dietary variation and niche breadth in polecats during the process of polecat population recovery and rabbit population variation, we analysed gut contents from polecats collected from 2012 to 2016 and compared our findings with earlier analyses of polecat diet in Britain in the 1960s (Walton 1968), 1980s (Blandford 1986) and 1990s (Birks and Kitchener 1999). We hypothesised that (i) rabbits will be reduced in importance in polecat diet compared with the 1990s in response to reduced rabbit abundance; (ii) rodent prey will have increased as a proportion of diet over the same period; (iii) polecat dietary niche breadth will have fluctuated over time, in line with known long-term variations in rabbit abundance and (iv) rabbit consumption will have differed between the sexes. Like most mustelids, polecats are solitary creatures. MSc dissertation, Durham University, Durham, UK, Weber D (1989a) The diet of polecats (Mustela putorius L.) in Switzerland. (2) They may even prey on smaller mustelids such as the least weasel. Acta Theriol 49:337–347, Harris SJ, Massimino D, Gillings S, Eaton MA, Noble DG, Balmer DE, Procter D, Pearce-Higgins JW, Woodcock P (2018) The Breeding Bird Survey 2017. The observed frequencies of occurrence of the prey groups differed significantly from even (χ24 = 114.8, P < 0.001). Sainsbury, K.A., Shore, R.F., Schofield, H. et al. The species doesn’t conform to Bergmann’s rule, with the sample of dimension variation seeming to observe the development of dimension improve alongside an east-west axis. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-020-00484-0. There was no significant difference between males and female polecats in FO of all mammals (including lagomorphs and other mammals), birds or amphibians. Despite their reputation as pests of poultry, polecats eat small rodents, frogs, birds and snakes during their nocturnal hunting forays. Studies of polecat diet in Britain have previously found that female polecats tend to eat fewer rabbits and more birds than male polecats, though these differences were not statistically significant (Blandford 1986; Birks and Kitchener 1999). Birks and Kitchener (1999), who collected roadkill carcasses from across Wales and the English Midlands, did not identify any Galliformes in polecat stomachs, and our results are broadly consistent with this. 2000). If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. As a result and for simplicity, we calculated frequency of occurrence per food item, expressed as a percentage of the number of occurrences of one food item of the total number of occurrences of all food items, to indicate the relative importance in diet (Klare et al. The species is polygamous, with every male polecat mating with a number of females. The model analysing the factors influencing polecat diet in the 2010s found that season was the only factor that significantly affected the occurrence of lagomorphs (Fig. A male will sometimes have a bigger territory than a feminine. See more ideas about European polecat, Ferret, Animals. 2). Diet:They are obligate carnivores with extremely high metabolisms. In contrast, whilst rabbit consumption by Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, which are near-obligate predators of rabbits, also reduced, lynx continued to preferentially select rabbits in spite of their reduced availability (Ferreras et al. As there is no evidence from previous dietary studies to suggest that polecats eat earthworms (e.g. For instance, specialist predators have narrow dietary niches and will forage for specific prey species, independent of their availability, whereas generalists have comparatively large dietary niches and consume prey in proportion to their availability (Futuyma and Moreno 1988; Amundsen 1995). A significant element of this period of range expansion has coincided with extreme fluctuations in populations of rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (Sumption and Flowerdew 1985; Aebischer et al. Two methods were used to assess accuracy when identifying guard hair cuticle pattern. Mammal Rev 38:304–320, Levins R (1968) Evolution in changing environments. Biol Conserv 226:153–167, McDonald RA (2002) Resource partitioning among British and Irish mustelids. Our results, which show how niche breadth and diet composition has varied over time, demonstrate the importance of long-term studies for determining whether species are generalist or specialists. Unusually, the second lower incisors are similar in size to the third incisors and are located behind the … They are popularly bred for hunting rabbits. Mammal Rev 17:155–198, Croose E (2016) The distribution and status of the polecat (Mustela putorius) in Britain 2014–2015. 2000), usually only have one prey item per stomach (e.g. They usually weigh around 1 to 5.5 lbs. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a67a9c0ff43c40657d180899a086316c" );document.getElementById("b8364401cb").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Austral Ecol 25:223–231, MacArthur RH, Pianka ER (1966) On optimal use of a patchy environment. They’re primarily nocturnal, although females and their younger will forage through the day. Animals were stored frozen until necropsy examination, which was carried out at National Museums Scotland. 60 Arctic Fox Fun Facts – Interesting Facts to Know, All About Arctic Foxes – Facts | Profile | Adaptation. Mammal remains were identified to species level, except for rabbits and brown hares Lepus europaeus, which were not separated and were classified as lagomorphs. 2000). in the diets of mustelid predators in Belarus. Polecats eat a wide variety of food items across their European range and are usually described as generalist predators (Erlinge 1986; Lodé 1995; Baghli et al. Total n prey items = 82. 1) and refrozen prior to dietary analysis. Anurans frog or toads, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates collectively complement the diet. The European polecat is a seasonal breeder, with no courtship rituals. PhD Thesis, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, Blandford PRS (1987) Biology of the polecat Mustela putorius: a literature review.

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