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Publication date: 1 January 2004. Break through the cognitive hurdle. Not every executive has Bratton’s personality, but most have his potential—if they follow his success formula. As a result, less than 5% of the NYPD’s manpower was dedicated to fighting narcotics crimes. Successful commanders aren’t seen as bragging, because it’s clear to everyone that they were asked by Bratton’s top team to show, in detail, how they achieved their successes. He is the coauthor, along with Renée Mauborgne, of the book Blue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition (2015). Operating the system required no more than 18 minutes a day, which worked out, as he told the precinct commanders, to less than 1% of the average precinct’s workload. "The Tipping Point" and Green Dot Public Schools, Market-Led Innovation: How Your Customers--and Your Competitors--Can Help You Innovate (HBR OnPoint Executive Edition), Value Innovation: The Strategic Logic of High Growth (HBR Classic), Buy 5 - 10 Towards The Tipping Point in Leadership and Management: The Stoos Network and Stoos Connect . Gallup polls reported that public confidence in the NYPD jumped from 37% to 73%, even as internal surveys showed job satisfaction in the police department reaching an all-time high. Seeing that the mayor was aligned with Bratton, the courts appealed to the city’s legislators, advocating legislation to exempt them from handling minor-crime cases on the grounds that such cases would clog the system and entail significant costs to the city. Managers of poorly performing units feel that they have been put on notice—and people worried about job security are more likely to be scanning the job market than trying to solve the company’s problems. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call "tipping point leadership." Our research led us to conclude that all of Bratton’s turnarounds are textbook examples of what we call tipping point leadership. HBR OnPoint articles include the full-text HBR article, plus a synopsis and annotated bibliography. 1. To that end, he always ensures that he has a respected senior insider on the top team. That process takes a long time to implement and can prove very expensive, given the wide variety of motivational needs in any large company. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. Early on, he identified likely saboteurs and resisters among top staff—prompting a changing of the guard. They can achieve a great deal with the resources they have. In New York, for example, one of the most serious threats to his reforms came from the city’s courts, which were concerned that zero-tolerance policing would result in an enormous number of small-crimes cases clogging the court schedule. Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment Help. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. Copyright © 2020 Harvard Business School Publishing. The courts could hardly be seen as publicly opposing an initiative that would not only make New York a more attractive place to live but would ultimately reduce the number of cases brought before them. This idea, in fact, is at the heart of Bratton’s famous (and once hotly debated) philosophy of zero-tolerance policing. Knock over the political hurdle. About. The conventional theory of organizational change rests on transforming the mass. Leaders like Bratton know how to reach the organization’s tipping point without extra resources. Kim and Mauborgne 6 framed tipping point leadership as a change management that requires overcoming 4 types of hurdles: cognitive, political, resource, and motivational. In the context of change management, tipping point leadership "hinges on the insight that in any organization, once the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people are engaged, conversion to a new idea will spread like an epidemic, bringing about fundamental change very quickly." (For a summary of his achievements, see the exhibit “Bratton in Action.”), Bratton in Action The New York Police Department was not Bill Bratton’s first turnaround. Bratton’s alliance with the mayor’s office and the city’s leading media institution successfully isolated the courts. Timoney knew the key players and how they played the political game. A version of this article appeared in the. His predecessors had lobbied hard for the money to increase the number of subway cops, arguing that the only way to stop muggers was to have officers ride every subway line and patrol each of the system’s 700 exits and entrances. Tipping Point Leadership Case Study Solution & Analysis. It is at this point that he turns to the numbers, which he is adept at using to force through major changes. In the following pages, we’ll lay out the approach that has enabled Bratton to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point. That trap is completely avoidable. At the meetings, which took place in an auditorium at the police command center, a selected precinct commander was called before a panel of the senior staff (the selected officer was given only two days’ notice, in order to keep all the commanders on their toes). Why the weekday schedule? Twenty years in the ranks had taught him who all the key players were and how they played the political game. Welcome to ELA. Our case solution is based on Case Study Method expertise & our global insights. Blue Ocean Strategy Implementation Scenario Case: Tipping Point Leadership and Fair Process in Action is a Harvard Business (HBR) Case Study on Strategy & Execution , Fern Fort University provides HBR case study assignment help for just $11. It took an officer up to 16 hours per arrest to book the suspect and file papers on the incident. Bratton realized that he could dramatically increase his available policing resources—not to mention the officers’ motivation—if he could somehow improvise around this problem. and pay only $8.00 each. ISSN: 0258-0543. 1. While the police officers took pride in solving serious offenses like grand larceny and murder, few citizens felt in any danger from these crimes. Organizational politics is an inescapable reality in public and corporate life, a lesson Bratton learned the hard way. The meetings began with a show-and-tell by the officers: This is what we are working on and why. (The exhibit “The Strategy Canvas of Transit: How Bratton Refocused Resources” illustrates how radically Bratton refocused the transit police’s resources. All rights reserved. Doing so increases the organization’s collective strength and everyone’s chance of winning. With the mayor speaking aggressively in the press about the need to pursue quality-of-life crimes and the city’s most respected—and liberal—newspaper giving credence to the policy, the costs of fighting Bratton’s strategy were daunting. Over the years, through our professional and personal networks and the rich public information available on the police sector, we have systematically compared the strategic, managerial, and performance records of Bratton’s turnarounds. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block companies from recognizing the need for radical change. View HBR Change Journal Review WEEK3 (1)llllllll.docx from BUSI 6223 at Oklahoma Wesleyan University. The odds were against him. Using the five scenarios participants work in teams as they learn to apply key concepts of tipping point leadership and fair process. Many CEOs recognize the importance of getting people motivated to make changes, but they make the mistake of trying to reform incentives throughout the whole organization. Rather than trimming your ambitions (dooming your company to mediocrity) or fighting for more resources (draining attention from the underlying problems), concentrate current resources on areas most needing change. The theory of tipping points, which has its roots in epidemiology, is well known; it hinges on the insight that in any organization, once the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people are engaged, conversion to a new idea will spread like an epidemic, bringing about fundamental change very quickly. Turning around an organization as large and as wedded to the status quo as the NYPD requires a collective effort. April 01, 2003. Bratton’s predecessors had treated it as secondary in importance, partly because they assumed that responding to 911 calls was the top priority. Bratton’s internal communications strategy also plays an important role in breaking through the cognitive hurdles. Take lessons from police chief Bill Bratton, who’s pulled the trick off five times. The New York Division of Parole, on the other hand, was short of cars but had excess office space. One way Bratton solves the motivation problem is by singling out the key influencers—people inside or outside the organization with disproportionate power due to their connections with the organization, their ability to persuade, or their ability to block access to resources. 2. As he put it, the challenge the NYPD faced was to make the streets of New York safe “block by block, precinct by precinct, and borough by borough.” Thus framed, the task was both all encompassing and doable. To make a compelling case for change, don’t just point at the numbers and demand better ones. When Bratton took over as chief of the transit police, for example, his general counsel and policy adviser, Dean Esserman, now police chief of Providence, Rhode Island, discovered that the transit unit had more unmarked cars than it needed but was starved of office space. The New … - Selection from HBR's 10 Must Reads for HR Leaders Collection (5 Books) [Book] The commander in the spotlight was questioned by both the panel and other commanders about the precinct’s performance. Even when organizations reach their tipping points, powerful vested interests resist change. To make the challenge seem manageable, Bratton framed it as a series of specific goals that officers at different levels could relate to. Most CEOs try to make the case for change simply by pointing to the numbers and insisting that the company achieve better ones. Then we’ll describe how he successfully managed around the public sector’s endemic constraints on resources, which he even turned to his advantage. Anticipating this argument, deputy commissioner Jack Maple set up a reporting system that covered the city’s most crime-ridden areas. An incompetent commander could no longer cover up his failings by blaming his precinct’s results on the shortcomings of neighboring precincts, because his neighbors were in the room and could respond. Nick possess a unique mixture of skills ranging from design and coding to management. Those whose units are doing well feel that the criticism is not directed at them, that the problem is top management’s. Harvard Case Studies. For the commanders, the challenge was making their precincts safe—no more. Gartner Hype Cycle methodology gives you a view of how a technology or application will evolve over time, providing a sound source of insight to manage its deployment within the context of … The great challenges in applying this kind of motivational device, of course, are ensuring that people feel it is based on fair processes and seeing to it that they can draw lessons from both good and bad results. We have followed up by interviewing the key players, including Bratton himself, as well as many other people who for professional—or sometimes personal—reasons tracked the events. Bratton addresses the issue of fair process by engaging all key influencers in the procedures, setting clear performance expectations, and explaining why these strategy meetings, for example, are essential for fast execution of policy. The best the police could do was react to crimes once they were committed. The motivational and political hurdles prevent a strategy’s rapid execution. Harvard Business Publishing is an affiliate of Harvard Business School. At the NYPD, for instance, Bratton appointed John Timoney, now Miami’s police commissioner, as his number two. To make a compelling case for change, don’t just point at the numbers and demand better ones. All rights reserved. The New York Police Department was not Bill Bratton’s first turnaround. Bratton got the larger cars he wanted. Forbes … Often the most serious opposition to reform comes from outside. But messages communicated through numbers seldom stick. Innovations like that enabled Bratton to dramatically reduce subway crime—even without an increase in the number of officers on duty at any given time. The Boston police performance statistics, however, did not reflect this reality. Using the five scenarios the participants work in teams as they learn to apply key concepts tipping point leadership … In this article, we focus on two: tipping point awareness and stress shifting. Instead, make key managers experience your organization’s problems. Bratton exhorted staff to make NYC’s streets safe “block by block, precinct by precinct, and borough by borough.”. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. She is coauthor, along with W. Chan Kim, of Blue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition (2015). Most reformist CEOs do one of two things at this point. How can you overcome the hurdles facing any organization struggling to change: addiction to the status quo, limited resources, demotivated employees, and opposition from powerful vested interests? His solution was to park “bust buses”—old buses converted into arrest-processing centers—around the corner from targeted subway stations. Background of "The Tipping Point" and Green Dot Public Schools case study. His successes, therefore, are not just a matter of personality but also of method, which suggests that they can be replicated. In most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. Strategic Direction . Not surprisingly, Bratton’s popularity soared, and in 1996, he was featured on the cover of Time. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Clearing the leadership hurdles : An evaluation of quiet leaders, tipping point leaders and corporate governance. The odds were against him. In many turnarounds, the hardest battle is simply getting people to agree on the causes of current problems and the need for change. Distribution of officers was not the only problem. But the tipping point would not have been reached without him—or another leader like him. And while we recognize that not every executive has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, there are many who have that potential once they know the formula for success. Getting the key influencers motivated frees an organization from having to motivate everyone, yet everyone in the end is touched and changed. Order Now - "The Tipping Point" and Green Dot Public Schools Case Memo Order Now - "The Tipping Point" and Green Dot Public Schools SWOT & PESTEL Analysis. Perhaps most impressive, the changes have outlasted their instigator, implying a fundamental shift in the department’s organizational culture and strategy. He puts managers face-to-face with operational problems. The vertical axis shows the relative level of resource allocation. Bratton also uses another motivational lever: framing the reform challenge itself. Blue Ocean Strategy Implementation Self-Diagnostic: Tipping Point Leadership and Fair Process in Action Case Solution, The Blue Ocean Strategy Implementation Self-Diagnostic is from a series of probing questions, the executive participants together provide a practical tool After just two hours, the general manager wanted out. But if a new strategy is to become a movement, employees must not only recognize what needs to be done, they must also want to do it. No matter what their positions, officers couldn’t say that what was being asked of them was too tough. Bratton has used community meetings like this in every turnaround since. The deal stoked Bratton’s credibility within the organization, which would make it easier for him to introduce more fundamental changes later, and it marked him, to his political bosses, as a man who could solve problems. When Bratton first went to New York to head the tran-sit police in April 1990, he discovered that none of the se- Identify and silence key naysayers early by putting a respected senior insider on your top team. So‐called quiet leaders are often just as effective when tough decisions are required. Bratton’s team demonstrated to the mayor that the court system had the capacity to handle minor “quality of life” crimes, even though doing so would presumably not be palatable for them. Tipping all four hurdles leads to rapid strategy reorientation and execution. The more likely change becomes, the more fiercely and vocally these negative influencers—both internal and external—will fight to protect their positions, and their resistance can seriously damage, even derail, the reform process. He addresses the issue of learning by insisting that the team of top brass play an active role in meetings and by being an active moderator himself. You can download HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change in pdf format Instead, motivate key influencers—persuasive people with multiple connections. اساتید ELA توسط مدیران آموزشی ... Shada Migration and Education Services blog.shada.com.au/ ذخیره شده مشابه ۳۰ اسفند ۱۳۹۵ ه.ش. Processing time was cut from 16 hours to just one. But don’t try reforming your whole organization; that’s cumbersome and expensive. There’s a Tipping Point Leadership HBR Case Solution project before you and a blank bit of paper. The table describes his biggest challenges and achievements during his 20 years as a policy reformer.exhibit end. Break through the cognitive hurdle. The motivational and political hurdles prevent a strategy’s rapid execution. The mayor decided to intervene. Four Steps to the Tipping Point. Poor performance becomes something they witness rather than hear about. W. Chan Kim is a professor of strategy and management at INSEAD and codirector of the INSEAD Blue Ocean Strategy Institute, in Fontainebleau, France. He jammed the seats forward to let the general manager feel how little legroom a six-foot cop would have, then drove him over every pothole he could find. Bratton used tipping point leadership to make unarguable calls for change, concentrate resources on what really mattered, mobilize key players’ commitment, and silence naysayers. Take the case of the New York narcotics unit. To the line managers—the very people the CEO needs to win over—the case for change seems abstract and remote. ), In comparing strategies across companies, we like to use a tool we call the strategy canvas, which highlights differences in strategies and resource allocation. Working together in this way, Bratton and the mayor were able to maneuver the courts into processing quality-of-life crimes. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational … Tipping point leadership is learnable. It lays out the story. Bratton uses a similar approach to help sensitize his superiors to his problems. At an initial meeting with the NYPD’s chiefs, Bratton’s deputy commissioner of crime strategy, Jack Maple, asked people around the table for their estimates of the percentage of crimes attributable to narcotics use. His leadership and implementation of Agile methodologies has helped Anaconda to produce software in a consistent, predictable manner to meet the demanding goals of our enterprise end users. Results? The meetings allowed Bratton and his senior staff to carefully monitor and assess how well commanders were motivating and managing their people and how well they were focusing on strategic hot spots. Tipping point leadership developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, by contrast, takes a reverse course. When Bratton first went to New York to head the transit police in April 1990, he discovered that none of the senior staff officers rode the subway. They found that the vast majority occurred at only a few stations and on a couple of lines, which suggested that a targeted strategy would work well. Overcoming these hurdles is, of course, a continuous process because the innovation of today soon becomes the conventional norm of tomorrow.exhibit end. In February 1994, William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City. Example: Bratton put the NYPD’s key influencers—precinct commanders—under a spotlight during semiweekly crime strategy review meetings, where peers and superiors grilled commanders about precinct performance. Bratton knows that few police officers have the time or inclination to do more than throw these documents into the wastebasket. So Bratton typically calls on the help of expert communication outsiders. Bratton’s drive for data-driven policing solutions led to the creation of the famous Compstat crime database.
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