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for such a shape. Why is Grain Direction So Important? If that is not an option, you can jot the grain direction … We can manually control the grain direction of the metal in the flat pattern, and subsequently how the bounding box is oriented to address these concerns. Bending stretches wood along the outer side of the bend, and compresses it along the inner side, producing stress that wants to bring the bent piece back to its original shape, a tendency called “springback.” Steaming softens the lignin to release this stress. NOTE: grain is the rolling direction which elongates grains in the same direction. Grain Direction “Going against the grain” is a familiar phrase. Scratches and sharp/burred edges contribute to crack initiation when bending … Pith introduces similar lines of weaknesses. In the example above, perhaps were using a certain type of steel and specific bend radius whereby we need to be careful to ensure the sheet metal does not crack due to bending. A project can be done a lot faster when the grain direction is already marked on the materials. Have you encountered challenges with Grain Direction in sheet metal? 8.23 How does the grain direction in sheet metal affect the design of: (a) Bending dies (b) Blanking dies. In cold-rolled steel, the inside bend radius can change depending on whether you’re bending with or against the grain. The grains run parallel to the rolling direction. A metal’s strength is directly related to its grain size; reducing grain size is a common way to improve material strength which often has little to no effect on the material’s toughness. 8.24 Generally, the die opening is straight up to a certain length and tapered thereafter. Grain direction also impacts the amount of spring-back you can expect. Grain Direction is formed in metal in the direction in which the sheet was rolled at the steel mill. When bent transverse to the grain, long edges of grain boundaries are exposed to high strain with high potential for crack initiation. Explain the Texture or grain direction must be taken into account for accurate predictions of material behavior and characteristics when forming/bending. Surface checks, which are … Since commercial sheet metal bending can be done with less concern for stresses caused during forming operation, the radius can be near zero for thin sheet metal. by distorted grain and also because they resist compression. Shakes, which are longitudinal separations parallel to the annual rings, are responsible for failures in shear during the bending operation. Even a small grain angle of 20 degrees can cut the wood's basic strength in half. The result is a smooth surface. Mark or take note of the direction grain. It means doing something the wrong way.When you’re talking about wood, you always want to go with the grain—cutting or planing a board in a way that follows the natural structure of the tree (Photo 1). To predict the material’s behaviour accurately during bending you need to accommodate for grain direction, especially at the press brake. A steel plate’s grain direction comes from the mill’s rolling process, which stretches the metallurgical structure of the material. Pages may also resist turning if the grain direction is wrong. The pieces should be end-coated to prevent excessive end-grain absorption. Forming or bending “with the grain” requires less force because the materials ductility is already stretched. One way to do this is to draw faint lines in the direction of the grain on the backside of the material. First, the grain of the wood should be parallel to the sides of the piece being bent and not at an angle. If you have wrong paper grain direction, there is a higher chance of fractures or tears. Explain the reason. 8.25 In die shearing operations, die size is the hole size and punch size is the blank size. However, wrong grain direction makes book less usable and even leads to structural damage and early deterioration: When you turn the pages, they tend to bend a bit.
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