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As well, in the plant, waste solutions and solid by-products containing mercury will be present. Table XVI. When did organ music become associated with baseball? This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ? The leaching of the concentrate was straightforward. This can be done in several ways. Copper Enargite Concentrate Head Sample Assay Cu, % 30.1 As, % Sb, % Au, g/T 10.7 1.2 35.1, Table XIV. (c) Aluminium always has +3 oxidation number Note : Metal may have negative or zero oxidation number Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero 0 0 0 0 e.g. Figure 3. (C) can be an oxidizing agent. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table XVIII, and the assays of the final products are shown in Table XIV. 20. oxidation number of +3. Where can i find the fuse relay layout for a 1990 vw vanagon or any vw vanagon for the matter? As an example, when the system is applied to an arsenic containing material like orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment follows. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 6 Hr. 7. The overall results are presented in Table XV. Confusingly there is another compound NaAsO2 sodium 2,331,375 (12 Oct. 1944). This process is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. The further treatment of the leach solutions is described elsewhere. SSR, 6 (1963) 77-90. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Assay. A typical flotation concentrate of this type is shown in Table XVI. Anderson, C. G., Nordwick, S. M., and Krys, L.E., "Processing of Antimony at the Sunshine Mine", Residues and Effluents - Processing and Environmental Considerations, ed. sodium arsenite. C.G. The oxidation state is +1 for the alkali metals and +2 for the alkaline earth metals. Also, due to space constraints, only the leach results for a series of lead smelter products will be shown in this paper. Met- Oboeashck. Worldwide, it is employed industrially in the CIS, China and the United States for the production of antimony. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Total Sulfur Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 25 g/L Table III. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. This Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached In, % 0.0 Pb,% 0.0 Sb,% 95.0 Page 126 As,% 99.0 Zn,% 0.0, Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Softening Skims, The formation of arsenic and antimony skims in lead refining is commonly encountered. Summary From the cited examples in the paper, which utilized fundamental principles of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy as well as its industrially proven applications for the selective arsenic, antimony, and mercury removal, it is obvious that ores, concentrates and materials containing these can be effectively treated while also achieving selective gold recovery where required. Anderson, "Industrial Nitrogen Species Catalyzed Pressure Leaching and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Recovery from Refractory Gold Concentrates", Precious Metals 2001, 25th Annual IPMI Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, June 2001. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2), When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. Naub. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Final Assay. When did Elizabeth Berkley get a gap between her front teeth? The primary issues of interest to be addressed in this paper were solublization of antimony and mercury, purification of the leach liquors, the deportment of the mercury and the recovery of gold from solution. 4. Reddy, W. P. Imrie, P.B. Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, 4. 16. Kaz. (B) is related to arsenic. 137 (1994) 131 178 Gap Fig. October 2003. Our content is added by our users. Home; chemistry of main elements.pdf; chemistry of main elements.pdf. The conditions utilized are shown in Table XVII. (D)has eight valence electrons. Gold lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides as shown in equation 8. Akad. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached Pb,% 0.0 2.5 Sb,% 89.0 As,% 96.0. Cationic Low Oxidation State Phosphorus and Arsenic Compounds Destabilized LiBH4âNaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts Structurally distinct bacterial luciferases But most of S is non-oxidized and remains its primitive phase This is verified by XRD analysis, as shown in stead of at high ones as follows: 3FeAsS+ 9NaOH+ 402= Na3AsS3+ 2Na3As04+ 3Fe( OH) 4FeAsS+ 4FeS2+ 12NaOH+ 302+ 6H20= 4Na3AsS3+ OH) 3 The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4), Dissolution of elemental sulfur in sodium hydroxide is also used as a lixiviant for alkaline sulfide leaching of arsenic. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table IV, and the assay of the final products is shown in Table V. The overall results are presented in Table VI. Nauch Tr. Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Copper Enargite Concentrates In many parts of the world, enargite, Cu3AsS4, occurs as a primary copper mineral. Reddy, J.L. References, 1. 5. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Qboaashch. 17. Table XVIII. The proven techniques and accompanying industrial flowsheets used to recover and stabilize arsenic with, for example, iron from the solutions is beyond the scope of this paper. % of Metal Leached Cu, % As, % Sb, % Au, % 0.0 99.2 99.7 14.3. This paper outlines the fundamentals of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy and its successful application to arsenic, antimony and mercury bearing ores, concentrates, by-products, and other materials. (E) is changing its oxidation state in the same manner as â¦ 19. The equations that describe the antimony and mercury dissolution are similar to the equations presented above for arsenic and therefore they won't be presented here. Selective cementation of mercury from solution is one methodology and it can be accomplished by several means utilizing copper, antimony, iron and sulfur. Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to Figure 1. Leach Time = 12 Hr. Rev. 14. Queneau (San Diego, CA: AIME-TMS, 1992), 349-366. This is a unique hydrometallurgical system as it is a very selective lixiviant for the distinct leaching of tin, gold, antimony, arsenic and mercury (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Hendrix and P.B. e.g. The mercury is then recovered as a waste product, stabilized and stored while the cleaned sodium antimonate is either recycled into the plant or marketed. Which reaction involves neither oxidation nor reduction? 11. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. 13. Anderson, C. G. and Krys, L. E., "Leaching of Antimony from a Refractory Precious Metals Concentrate", Proceedings Of The Fourth International Symposium On Hydrometallurgy (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table XII. All of the M2+ions are smaller and considerably less polarizable than the isoelectronic M+ ions. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Ogneuporov.. 3 (1961), 359. Queneau, Phoenix, Arizona, 1988. This is as follows: 2Na2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2NaOH (14), The clean gypsum product can then be marketed and used in such applications as agricultural soil amendments or as an additive in primary cement manufacture. 626-9. Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.84 g/L, Table XIV. Modrow and G.K. Roset, "Adaption of Dilute Mold Lime Dual Alkali Scrubbing at Stillwater Mining Company's PGM Smelter", Hydrometallurgy 2003, Vancouver, B.C. 2,020,656 (25 Feb. 1971). Leach Testing Conditions. sodium polysulfide (Na2SX) and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) are created along with sulfide. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, The proprietary substrate solids which have been employed to load the gold consist of several cheap and readily available materials and direct processing of the material is probably the cheapest and most effective method of refining the gold. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing these impurities. This more accurately reflects plant conditions. As shown in Figure 3, gold is soluble in the alkaline sulfide system. This can be viewed as follows: Na2SX + (X-1)Na3AsS3 (X-1)Na3AsS4 + Na2S (7). This is illustrated as follows: Table XIII. As regulations on the transport, exposure, disposition and emission of these elements have become more stringent; it has become increasingly more difficult to derive the values from the resources. 18. W. C. Holmes, "How electrolytic antimony is made at Sunshine Plant", Ens. 2 G. F. Gnatyshenko and T. R. Polyvyanni, "Arsenic leaching from Cottrell dusts by sodium sulfide", lav. lnst._Redk. A proprietary gold recovery process has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions containing a mixture of metals such as arsenic, tin, mercury and antimony. Nauch-Issled. In the past, pyrometallurgical roasting has been utilized to remove antimony, arsenic and mercury from the concentrates and ores. Leach Time = 6 Hr. R. M. Nadkarni, C. L. Kusik and H. P. Heissner, "Method of removing arsenic and antimony from Copper Ore Concentrate", U. S. Patent 3, 911,073, Oct. 7, 1975. The gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. C. R. Edwards, 1985 "Engineering the Equity Concentrate Leach Process", In: Complex Sulfides: Processing of Ores, Concentrates and By-Products, A.D Zunkel, et al, eds. 1. Equilibrium Species Eh-pH Diagram for Sulfur and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Currently, studies are underway on the actual kinetics and mechanism of the alkaline sulfide system(16,17,18). 9. Irkutsk. Figure 2. C.G. May 13, 2018 | Author: achmadroybiabbas | Category: Solvation, Hydrogen, Ion, Nitrogen, Solubility 8. All Rights Reserved. C.G. The details of this process will be given in future publications and may be illustrated as follows: Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2.3 H2SO4 + 2NaOH (15), Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Copper Dross Flue Dust The formation of arsenic and antimony laden dusts in the processing of lead is commonly encountered. Twidwell Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, Montana USA Abstract Throughout the world, there are many orebodies or materials which have significant value but also contain arsenic, antimony, and mercury. 2. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing impurities. They also offer a number of advantages for crystal growth, and provide a medium for the synthesis of solids 150 G.W. This may be illustrated as; Na2HgS2 + Fe Hg + Na2S + FeS (16), For the actual proposed plant an alternative patented technology was actually chosen for solution purification . Roznava Concentrate = 100 g/L Leach Temperature = 105O C, Sulfur Addition = 20 g/L Sodium Hydroxide = 35 g/L Sb Leached = 95.0 % As Leached = 60.0 % Hg Leached =95.0 % Au Leached = 20.0 % Cu Leached = 0.0 % Ag Leached = 0.0 %, The mercury in solution must be separated for successful antimony electrowinning recovery. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery. These conditions and results are reflective of closed cycle testing of the system that includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? 145 (3) (1944), 54-8. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L, Table XV. C.G. R.G. Lead Smelter Speiss Head Sample Assay Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au g/T, Ag, g/T 43.5 1.4 0.5 0.1 12.2 3.3 14.8 1.7 0.9 45.0 9000 Table II. The Roznava district in Slovakia has long been known for its copper, silver and antimony bearing tetrahedrite ores.. Mercury is also found in conjunction with this ore complicating the processing. Leach Testing Conditions. O , S , P , O 2 8 4 3 Sum of the oxidation numbers of atoms of all elements in a molecule is zero. Several other applications of the alkaline sulphide leach treatment can be obtained by contacted one of the authors. Table I. Alkaline sulfide leaching (ASL) at approximately 100 ºC has been used to selectively extract arsenic and antimony from enargite and tetrahedrite concentrates. The alkaline sulfide system is one of these and is essentially a mixture of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Alkaline Sulfide Leach Testing Conditions. But if halogen atom is attached with a more electronegative atom than halogen atom, then it will show positive oxidation numbers. Volume, L 0.5 Au 1.5 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T, Table XV. 6. 10. Table X. Nordwick, S. M. and Anderson, C. G., "Advances In Antimony Electrowinning at the Sunshine Mine", Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy, (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). Alkaline Sulfide Leach Head Solution Assay Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 mg/L Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 mg/L Sn 1.84 g/L, Table V. Alkaline Sulfide Solution Final Assay Volume, L 0.5 Au 14.4 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T Table VI. The mercury bearing solid sodium hydroxyantimonate is then relieved of its mercury content via selective lixiviation. Na3AsS4 + 2 O2 2 O2 + Na2S 3.5 O2 + 2NaOH + Na2S2 8 O2 + 8NaOH + Na2S5 Na3AsO4 Na2SO4 2Na2SO4 + H2O 5Na2SO4 + 4H2O (9) (10) (11) (12), This versatile and environmentally benign chemical may then be sold to and utilized in industries such as pulp and paper, glass, ceramics, detergents, textile dyes, mineral feed supplements, bleach and photography. 2.2 Selective Recovery of Gold from Alkaline Sulfide Solutions In the example cited above, it is essential in that any gold leached in the alkaline sulfide solutions be recovered. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Arsenic and Antimony Leaching The rest of this paper deals with the specific leaching application of the alkaline sulfide system to arsenic, antimony, and mercury bearing materials. SSR. Listy. C.G., "The Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Mercury Bearing Antimony Ores and Concentrates", TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, Ca., February, 2003. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Met. contains a polymeric meta-arsenite ion (AsO2-)n . Sb, %, As, % Hg, %, Cu, %, Fe, % Ag, ppm Au, ppm TS, % 17.3 1.85 0.55 26.1 12.4 6,400 2.0 22.0 Utilizing alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy, as practiced industrially, extensive studies were undertaken in the United States to produce and treat Roznava concentrates. Met^l, 9 (1961), 2Q4-B. Anderson. (1,2,3,4) When the system is applied to orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. Ser. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. Gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Leach Time = 6 Hr. N- atom belongs to 15th group in the periodic table, therefore as per rule, its oxidation number may vary from 3 62. Z2 (9) (1967). al., "Antimony Separation Process", U.S. Patent No. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? The resultant sodium sulfate, after arsenic removal, is further treated by purification and crystallization to produce high grade, marketable sodium sulfate. An example of the application of the alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgical treatment follows. 5,290,338, March 1, 1994. Roznava Tetrahedrite Concentrate. Alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy can be effective in treating these types of ores and concentrates. Ahad. If the group number of an element in modern periodic table is n, then its oxidation number may vary from (n â 10) to (n â 18) (but it is mainly applicable for p-block elements ) e.g. 3. Copper Dross Flue Dust Head Sample Assay In, % 0.3 Pb,% 46.0 Sb,% As,% Zn,% 9.0 12.0 11.0, Table VIII. The superheated fluids have a number of unusual properties which render them different from the normal liquid phase. Gos. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Antimony and Mercury Leaching As a further example of the flexability of the alkaline sulfide leaching technology the following summary of the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) is presented below. There is an increase in coordination number going from Li+(4) through Na+(6) to K+, Rb+ and Cs+(8), and from Be2+(4) through Mg2+(6) to Ca2â, Sfi+ and Ba2+(8). Figure 2: Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. 20. 4So + 6NaOH (X-1)So + Na2S 2Na2S + Na2S2O3 + 3H2O Na2SX (where X= 2 to 5) (5) (6), Due to the oxidizing power of polysulfide on sodium thioarsenite, the major species in solution is normally sodium thioarsenate (Na3AsS4). Mining J. Further, a novel gold recovery method has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover leached gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. 15. Conventional methods of gold recovery such as zinc or aluminum cementation are not applicable to this type of solution because of the dangers associated with stibine or arsine gas generation. Anderson, "A Fundamental Study of the Alkaline Sulfide Leaching of Gold", The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, October 2002. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy C G Anderson and L G Twidwell, THE ALKALINE SULFIDE HYDROMETALLURGICAL SEPARATION, RECOVERY AND FIXATION OF TIN, ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, MERCURY AND GOLD. M. Jeffrey, and C.G. The combination of sodium hydroxide and 2 elemental sulfur results in the formation of species other than just sulfide (S- ). For example mercury will be precipitated in conjunction with by-product sodium hydroxyantimonate production by pressure oxidation as follows; 2Na2HgS2 + H2O + O2 2HgS + Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH NaSb(OH)6 + 2Na2S2O3 (17) (18). Lead Softening Skims Head Sample Assay Pb,% 52.9 Sb,% As,% 31.7 3.3, Table XI. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached, Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au %, Ag, % 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 99.1 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0, As seen, the alkaline sulfide leach was highly selective in removing only antimony, arsenic and some gold to solution. Figure 1 illustrates the equilibrium diagram for sulfur while Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Metallurgical Society of AIME and the CIMM, TMS-AIME Fall Extractive Meeting, San Diego CA, Nov. 10-13 1985, p. 197-219. Both. Jlnst. No. NaAsO 2 : Molar mass: 129.91 g/mol Appearance white or grayish powder hygroscopic Density: 1.87 g/cm 3: Melting point: 550 °C (1,022 °F; 823 K) decomposes Is it normal to have the medicine come out your nose after a tonsillectomy? P. U. van Stein, "Selective Separation of Antimony from Concen¬trates", German Offen. Kolis/Coord. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment of this arsenic trioxide bearing materials follows: Table VII. Anderson, E. Dahlgren, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004. 3. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table IX. As well the sodium sulfate produced can be used to regenerate the sodium hydroxide needed in the process in a manner analogous to industrial dual alkali scrubbing systems(20). Sodium thio-arsenate has been postulated to crystallize from alkaline sulfide leaching solutions upon cooling. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Again arsenic has In addition, initial efforts are underway and have been successful in regenerating the necessary H2SO4 and NaOH reagents from the Na2SO4 by-product. Chem. In this case, a high grade, 38% copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment by smelting. Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur, The generation of these predominant meta-stable species is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. Nadkarni, R.M., and Kusik, C.L., "Hydrometallurgical Removal of Arsenic from Copper Concentrates" Arsenic Metallurgy Fundamentals and Applications, Edited by R.G. Leach Test Results. Drake and J.W. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4) Please use this link to notify us: Report this file as copyright or inappropriate, Notice: fwrite(): send of 201 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531. This has resulted in long term existing environmental impacts in the region. R.R Lunt, D.K. The gold in solution was recovered with the technology portrayed earlier in the paper and the arsenic was precipitated and stabilized with iron after oxidation of the alkaline waste solutions.
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