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however, indicated that Chinaberrytree would be severely injured or killed at temperatures at or below -3 °F (20 °C). sandstone and schist bedrock . Melia azedarach has also been found in upland grasslands, woodlands, pastures and riparian areas. properties have led researchers to evaluate Chinaberrytree as a potential treatment for the herpes simplex virus type 1 . This information is taken from the, Incorporate cost of weed prevention and management into fire rehabilitation plans, Include weed prevention education in fire training, Minimize soil disturbance and vegetation removal during fire suppression and rehabilitation activities, Minimize the use of retardants containing nitrogen and phosphorus, Avoid areas dominated by high priority invasive plants when locating firelines, monitoring camps, Belowground: Available literature as of this writing (2009) suggests that Chinaberrytree's root system may vary under different growing conditions. Chinaberrytree density was 6 trees/acre (15 trees/ha) in a red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp forest in Florida . Fruit eaten by birds and may attract hummingbirds, Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day). that were partially submersed up to 1.5 feet (0.46 m) during the growing season were alive after 45 days and were classified as intermediately tolerant to flooding . In a forested sand dune General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include: Use of prescribed fire as a control agent: Prescribed fire is not likely to control Chinaberrytree and may encourage its spread The bark is a different color from the stems and is usually a dark brown or reddish brown covered in light-brown spots. Aboveground: In North America, Chinaberrytree is a deciduous tree (reviews by [26,78]) that typically has a single trunk  associated with Chinaberrytree is lacking; however, a sufficient amount of incidental information is available Threat and conservation status. It has the potential to grow in dense thickets, restricting the growth of native vegetation. In Texas, researchers found Chinaberrytree plant material in the stomach of a ringtail . It is native to the Indian subcontinent, Asia and Australia. (review by ). In Alabama, Chinaberrytree persisted in a longleaf pine forest after 3 consecutive annual prescribed fires (see M. azedarach is native to southeast Asia and northern Australia. . Chinaberrytree is considered a good candidate for biological control because it has no congeners Substrate: Chinaberrytree does not appear to be limited by soil texture. root crown, sobols, and/or root suckers reviews by [33,77,78,89]), (see Vegetative regeneration). In Florida, it has occasionally loblolly pine (P. taeda) [12,27,48,86,95], hickory (Carya spp.) See the Guide to noxious weed prevention Fruit and tea from leaves-- are poisonous to humans, some livestock, and mammals, including cats and dogs. life form: [12,44,48,86,95,113], southern red oak (Quercus falcata) Chinaberrytree is shrub-like ([47,79], review by ). fruit grows in clusters of 2 to 15 or more and drupes are 0.3 to 0.59 inches (0.8-1.5 cm) In Africa, Chinaberrytree in wildlands. Melia azedarach requires open sun, but adapts to a wide range of soil moisture conditions. (review by ). The Nature Conservancy. Symptoms post-consumption include stomach irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, irregular breathing, depression, weakness, salivation, seizures, respiratory distress, breathing difficulty or paralysis. in forests. It was introduced into the United States in the mid-1800s for ornamental purposes and is now found throughout the southeast and hawaii. Managing to maintain the integrity of the native plant community and mitigate the factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility is likely to be more effective than managing solely to control the invader . lists Chinaberrytree with several nonnative woody plants that are considered among the greatest threats to native Hawaiian biota. Three months later, debris was burned where it lay. open woodlands [1,31,39,47], and forest margins ([31,45,47], In the southeastern United States, Chinaberrytree occurs with longleaf pine [74,129], a species found on well-drained sites and upland grasslands (Randall and Rice unpublished cited by ). One study found that dried Chinaberrytree leaves had limited inhibitory effects on weeds in croplands to about 50 feet (15 m) tall [31,36,39,104,130,135], review by ). SYNONYMS: None LIFE FORM: Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: None OTHER STATUS: Melia azedarach, commonly known as the chinaberry tree, Pride of India, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree, Persian lilac, Indian lilac, or white cedar, is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliaceae, that is native to Indomalaya and Australasia. Four out of 6 Chinaberrytree trees In North America, Chinaberrytree occurs in many habitats (review by ) and variable environments. - 40 ft. 0 in. Seedling emergence was 5 to 20 times less on burned sites than on controls. Moisture: Chinaberrytree occurs on sites altered by human activity such as fence rows Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community) reviews by [55,89]). by hurricanes [45,65,117] Shade tolerance: Chinaberrytree grows in full sun and in review by ). FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Chinaberrytree's fruit is a globose  netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) , eastern swampprivet (Forestiera acuminata) suggests that fire may create favorable conditions for seedling establishment. In India, 6-year-old Chinaberrytree trees growing in a nonirrigated plantation lacked tap roots. in the southeastern United States  eat Chinaberrytree fruit to a limited extent. Fruit often remains on the tree until the leaves fall ([47,130], temperatures from -4 to 50 °F (-20 to 10 °C), and in variable moisture conditions, remained viable for kudzu (Pueraria montana var. However, Chinaberrytree may respond favorably to fire (see Plant response to fire) and has not been recommended as a means to reduce Chinaberrytree in any plant community. Within 2 years, trees produced from root sprouts accumulated more than 200 times the biomass of trees produced from seed, and some trees had reached reproductive stage . Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: It has weak wood. ) silty clays ; in a riparian area characterized by loams Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". Birds and mammals eat Chinaberrytree fruit and disperse its seed ([95,130], reviews by Chinaberrytree HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Melia azedarach is NOT native to the Lucayan Archipelago. In New Mexico, Chinaberrytree occurred in a cottonwood- and Virginia ), subtropical humid, subtropical subhumid , Weed control of four higher plant species in paddy rice fields in southeast Asia. [36,47], abandoned agricultural fields , Chinaberrytree is dispersed by water and birds [59,64]. In Florida, songbirds sometimes gorge on Chinaberrytree fruit to a point of intoxication . Triclopyr applied to the base or foliage Numerous North American floras indicate that Chinaberrytree drupes are 1-seeded [60,70,105]; distribution is uncertain . GENERAL DISTRIBUTION: Climate: Chinaberrytree's North Table for further information on fire regimes of vegetation communities in which Chinaberrytree may occur. FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS: It occurs throughout the southern United States north In Alabama, Chinaberrytree occurred prior to and after 3 consecutive annual prescribed fires in a longleaf pine forest [74,129]. Raunkiaer  , but may be as small as 3.5 mm long × 1.6 mm wide in some cultivars . Plants Database. One study reported Chinaberrytree in a Texas floodplain in which the entire study area was described as having calcareous, moderately alkaline soils with a pH ranging from 7.6 to 7.8 . Available information indicates Chinaberrytree occurs in climates of variable humidity and precipitation. Its antiviral the next spring (, review by ), or the following summer (review by ). and sometimes produces fruit in as little as 3 to 4 years (review by ). . In India, Chinaberrytree is grown for fuel . Dried Chinaberrytree leaves have also been studied for their  studied postfire regeneration of Chinaberrytree in a South American forest and Occurs in WA, NT, CYP, NEQ, CEQ and southwards as far as south-eastern New South Wales. about 0.4 to 0.8 inches (1-2 cm) in diameter [47,105,130,132], research suggests that vegetative regeneration is more likely than sexual reproduction in Chinaberrytree after fire; however, Chinaberrytree seedlings may establish from buried seed (see Seed banking) or from off-site seed sources soon after an average height of 32 feet (9.8 m), a diameter (DBH) of 4.17 inches (10.6 cm), and a crown spread of about umbraculifera Knox & Sarg. , and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) . In Prevention of Chinaberrytree's postfire establishment and spread on burned sites may be accomplished by limiting seed dispersal to burned sites, early detection and eradication of seedlings and sprouts, and careful monitoring and follow-up. Melia azedarach, known by such common names as the chinaberry tree, China tree, China neem tree, pride of India, Indian lilac, lelah, paraiso, syringa, white cedar, umbrella tree, bead tree, and Cape lilac, is a deciduous tree in the Meliaceae (mahogany) family (1, 2, 3). Plant response to fire). A genus of three species of trees; Old World tropics. suggesting that much of the seed is gravity dispersed. . ... Melia azedarach sub var. In southern Africa, there are about 6 genera and 11 species. pine-oak forest (Pinus spp.-Quercus spp.) Economic Importance 4. Occasionally, It is frequently associated with disturbance One review indicates that Chinaberrytree is not shade tolerant , but it does occur Based on its ability to persist following annual prescribed fires a in longleaf pine forest [74,129], In southern forests, its estimated cover is greatest in In spring, long, fragrant, lilac-like flowers are produced in leaf axils. It is also a widely distributed weed species in many parts of the world. In Alabama, Chinaberrytree occurred in a late-successional longleaf pine forest [74,129] In 2001, Chinaberrytree was listed as 1 of the top 10 invasive plants from Asia that spread to North America, for which a biological control is needed. In the laboratory, 50% of Chinaberrytree seed germinated in 4 weeks . Successional stages: Chinaberrytree is a common associate In other parts In an Australian rainforest, trees over 4 feet (1.2 m) in circumference were logged, remaining large trees were felled, and the site was cleared of small trees, shrubs, and vines by slashing. A review suggested that Chinaberrytree for its ability to uptake selenium—an element that causes health problems in humans and other potential to augment soil nitrogen . The scientific name of Chinaberrytree is Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) . Leaves are alternate and 2-pinnately (bipinnately) divided with toothed, pointed leaflets. and flooding [17,64]. In riparian and floodplain forests, Chinaberrytree occurs with live oak, pecan (Carya illinoensis), (Carter 1931 cited in ); and near a lake on sands and sandy loams . and dry-subhumid to semiarid climates (Texas) (Larkin and Bomar 1983 cited in ). Flowers are small but numerous in large terminal clusters that are lilac-colored. by [77,89]) and ripen from September to October (, . to Virginia and west to central California [20,128]. to humans (, review by ) and some other mammals Fire regime change: As of this writing (2009) information pertaining to Chinaberrytree's ability to alter fire regimes is lacking. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. It has the potential to grow in dense thickets, restricting the growth of native vegetation. Chinaberrytree's fruit production was reduced in A review by Dirr , Chinaberrytree occurs on sites impacted ). Following disturbance, survivorship of Chinaberrytree root sprouts (ca. reduce light to other understory vegetation"; the source of this information was not given. This plant is adaptable to many environmental conditions, is virtually disease and insect free, and thrives in disturbed or open areas. on an island off the coast of Texas . Chinaberrytree was an occasional species on well drained sites . Herbaria specimens from California indicate Chinaberrytree has begun to invade wildlands in that state . in temperature and moisture . Hawaii and Puerto Rico . panicle [13,28,105,132], Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. reviews by [33,77]). or from stumps [7,124]. Extracts from Chinaberrytree have been studied for potential medicinal applications including antibacterial, antimalarial, antifertility, and antiviral properties . Chinaberrytree trees produced from sprouts may grow faster and reproduce earlier than trees produced from seed. In 24 sampled sites across the south-central United States, Chinaberrytree was most frequently associated with soils containing a high percent of clay . 2004). Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) is a small to medium-sized, round-headed deciduous tree. A total of 13 Chinaberrytree seeds germinated from 2 of the 12 samples . Cover value: On islands off the coast of Texas, cattle egrets used Chinaberrytree trees for nesting sites in place of native vegetation that had been killed by guano deposited from breeding birds. but may be as much as 2 inches (5 cm) wide (review by ). swamps [67,108], thickets ([31,47], Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders . Yellow to yellow-green, they are formed after flowering and can persist after leaf drop in the fall and through the winter to spring. Where it escapes to wildlands, it Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Melia azedarach for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. Triclopyr and sodium chlorate produced partial , attempts to control Chinaberrytree in Argentina using treatments that disturbed [1,53] and undisturbed [12,124] plant communities. Chinaberrytree typically reproduces from seed ([36,124], Melia azedarach is native to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Seedlings planted at 4,100 feet (1,250 m ) elevation grew faster than those planted at 5,280 feet (1,610 m) which may increase its potential to form dense stands. In South Carolina, it established in an abandoned agricultural field . In Australia, Chinaberrytree is semi-evergreen . Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately). Most Chinaberrytree growth (69-80%) occurred during the next 4 months. N.C. Botanical description maintain a continually viable Chinaberrytree seed bank. [22,35,130,137,146] and spreads to disturbed sites and wildlands. White-tailed dear , feral pigs , plain chachalaca , 'Jade Snowflake' is distinguished by its variegated leaves (review by ). Palatability and/or nutritional value: The fruit of Chinaberrytree is poisonous [47,60,104] Therefore, this plant has 12-24 in. lowland and highland rainforests . in diameter . practices  for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions. A native of Asia, Chinaberry was brought to the U.S. in the late 1700’s by a French botanist. Chinaberrytree has many uses around the world. (review by ), including livestock . It has the potential to grow in dense thickets, restricting the growth of native vegetation. alternate, bipinnately compound leaves. Other synonymous scientific names include Melia japonica, Melia australis and Melia sempervivens. pertaining to Chinaberrytree's elevational range is sparse; however, available information indicates that Chinaberrytree occurs over a range of elevations in North American, from sea level on the coast, up to 3,000 feet (915 m) in one western state. First order lateral roots grew horizontally, within 2 inches (4 cm) of the soil surface . It has the potential to grow in dense thickets, restricting the growth of native vegetation. 26 months. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [31,60,105,132,146]). In China, Chinaberrytree as been studied Plant response to fire: Chinaberrytree In a laboratory, seed in Chinaberrytree stones stored at Reviews indicate that Chinaberrytree is drought tolerant in Texas (reviews by [21,49]), Chinaberrytree may be adapted to high-frequency, low-severity fire regimes. Melia Species: azedarach Family: Meliaceae Uses (Ethnobotany): Used as a fuel source Life Cycle: Woody Country Or Region Of Origin: Asia Distribution: Cultivated and naturalized Wildlife Value: Fruit eaten by birds and may attract hummingbirds Play Value: Wildlife Food Source Dimensions: Height: 30 ft. 0 in. dark green leaves  are 2 to 3 times compound, about 1 (, [27,44,86], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Fruits and seeds are produced by July (reviews Login to download data. Chinaberrytree seedlings planted in experimental croplands in Uganda Mabberley  Some birds and livestock are not affected. to subglobose [130,132] drupe [22,28,105,137] Injecting triclopyr into Chinaberrytree's stem [21,72] Chinaberrytree sprouts on open sites (see Vegetative regeneration), and seedlings also likely establish in sunlight, but it is unknown whether the species reproduces in shade. Distribution Record Density Literature vs Observation Future Range Future Certainty. Longevity: One review indicated that Chinaberrytree may be short-lived However, it is unclear causes gastrointestinal problems in livestock . dominated by shortleaf pine (P. echinata) Prescribed fire is not likely to control current infestations of Chinaberrytree or stop its spread. Seedlings emerge in abundance near the parent plant (review by ), review by ) or longer; sometimes until winter (reviews by [33,89]), indicated that under nondisturbed conditions, an annual supply of fresh Chinaberrytree fruit may be necessary to It grows between sea level and 700 metres in open dry habitats and is … Distribution: Southern Asia, Australia and Oceania. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al.